Analysis of the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the genus Polygonum of Polygonaceae

Authors names: 

Bing-Bing SHENa,b, Yu-Pei YANGa, Sumera Yasamina, Na LIANGa,c, Wei SUa, Sheng-Huang CHENa, Xiao-Juan WANGc*, Wei WANGa*

Authors working units: 

a. TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development Laboratory, Sino-Pakistan TCM Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China;

b. Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Hunan Academy of Chinese Medicine, Chanagsha,410013, China;

c. School of Pharmacy, Hunan Food and Drug College, Changsha.

Corresponding Author: 

Wei WANG

Corresponding Author Information: 

Wei Wang Ph.D

Furong Distinguished Professor,

School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine

Director, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development Laboratory

300 Xueshi Rd., Pharmacy School Office

Hanpu Science & Technology Park, Yuelu District

Changsha, Hunan, China, 410208

E-mail: wangwei402@hotmai.com

Abstract: 

The main chemical constituents of the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) are flavonoids, quinones, phenylpropanoids, and terpenoids, which show anticancer, antitumor, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, insecticidal, and other pharmacological effects. This paper summarizes research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of compounds from the genus Polygonum in last 15 years.

1.Introduction

The genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) includes approximately 300 species that are widely distributed around the world, mostly in north temperate regions. Among 113 Polygonum species in China,1 Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb et Zucc., P. aviculare L., P. bistorta L., and P. flaccidum Meissn. have been used as traditional Chinese medicines, as described in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. Additionally, P. orientale L., P. tinctorium, P. persicaria L., and P. runcinatum have been shown to have good effects as traditional Chinese medicines.

Studies of the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Polygonum plants began at the end of the last century. In recent years, with the rapid development of chromatographic separation technologies and experimental methods, phytochemical investigations have indicated the presence of flavonoids, quinones, phenylpropanoids, and terpenoids in the genus Polygonum. In addition, crude extracts and pure compounds from this genus have been reported to exhibit a wide array of bioactivities, including anticancer, antitumor, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities.

In this review, we provide an overview of the literature describing different classes of compounds isolated from the genus Polygonum in the last 15 years, with a focus on their reported biological activities.

2.Chemical Constituents

2.1 Flavonoids

Flavonoids are the main secondary metabolites in Polygonum (Polygonaceae) species. Kaempferol (1), baicalin (2), quercetin (3), myricetin (4), 7,4'-dimethyl quercetin (5), 3-methyl quercetin (6), and isoquercetin (7) have been isolated from different species of the genus Polygonum, including P. cuspidatum Sieb et Zucc., P. runcinatum, P. perfoliatum L., P. bistorta L., and P. aviculare L. Li1 isolated kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin3-0-(3"-0-galloy1-rhamnopyranoside, and juglanin from P. aviculare L2. Additionally, myricetin3-O-(3"-O-galloy1-rhamnopyranoside was isolated from Polygonum species, and Yunuskhodzhaeva3 isolated liquiritin (8), avicularin (9), and cinaroside (10) from P. aviculare L. Lin4 isolated quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside, 8-methoxyl quercetin, 3,5,7-trihydroxy chromone (11), apigenin (12), and luteolin (13) from P. jucundum. Peng5 isolated tricin (14) and 7,4-dimethoxy kaempferol (15) from P. sieboldii Meisn. Partovi6 isolated a flavonol with coagulant properties, i.e., 3,7,3-trihydroxy-5,6-dimethoxyflavone (16), from P. bistorta. Kurkina7 isolated 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (17), 6′-hydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxy-chalcone (18), and 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (19) from P. persicaria. Tantry8 isolated a new flavone identified as (2R,3S)-3',4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavan-3-ol (20) from P. amplexicaule. Wang9 isolated epicatechin (21), epicatechin dimers (22), and epicatechin trimers (23) from P. paleaceum, and Nikolaeva10 isolated rutin, hyperoside, luteolin-7-glycoside, isoquercetin, avicularin, cosmosiin, and kaempferol glycoside from aerial parts of four Polygonum species (P. divaricatum, P. angustifolium, P. amphibium, and P. aviculare) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Li11isolated a new chromone glycoside 7-O-(6′-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxychromone (24) from P. capitatum, and Li12isolated polyflavanostilbene A (25), a new flavanol-fused stilbene glycoside, from P. cuspidatum.

Moradi-Afrapoli13isolated five phenolic compounds, including quercetin 3-O-α-l-(3",5"-diacetyl-arabinofuranoside (26), quercetin 3-O-α-l-(3"-acetyl-arabinofuranoside (27), avicularin (28), myricetin 3-O-α-l-(3",5"-diacetyl-arabinofuranoside (29), and myricetin 3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (30) from aerial parts of P. hyrcanicum. Zheng14 isolated two new flavone glycosides, i.e., viviparum A (31), and viviparum B (32), from P. viviparum L.

2.2 Quinones

Quinones are characteristic components of Polygonum species, such as P. cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., P. bistorta L., P. perfoliatum, and P. hydropiper. Some Polygonum species contain chrysophanol (33), emodin (34), rhein (35), emodin-6-methyl-ether (36), aloe-emodin (37), and 6-hydroxy aloemodin (38) as major constituents as well as some other anthraquinones, anthrone, and naphthoquinone. Liu15isolated four anthraquinones, including emodin (34), rhein (35), physcion (39), and chrysophanone (40), as well as 2-methoxystypandrone (41), as major active components of P. cuspidatum. Shu16 isolated three anthraquinones from Rumex japonicus by high-speed counter-current chromatography, and Al-Hazimi17 isolated four naphthoquinones, including sitosterol (42), oleanolic acid (43), 5,6,7,40-tetramethoxyflavanone (44), and 6-methoxyplumbagin (45). Notably, 6-methoxyplumbagin (42) was also isolated from the acetone extracts of P. aviculare. Zhang18isolated two new anthraquinone malonylglucosides (46 and 47) from P. cuspidatum.

2.3 Phenylpropanoids

Few reports have described phenylpropanoid compounds of the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae). Sun19 isolated five compounds, including 6-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (48), 2,4,6-triacetyl-3-6-diferuloylsucrose (49), 1,2,4,6-tetraacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (50), 1,2,6-triacetyl-3,6-diferuloyl-sucrose (51), and 2,6-diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (52), from P. perfoliatum L., and Wang20 isolated a new lignin, 8-oxo-pinoresinol (53), from the methanol extract of the tubers of P. perfoliatum L. Xiao21 isolated two sulfate lignans, sodium(-)-lyoniresinol-2α-sulfate (54) and sodium(+)-isolaricireinol-2α-sulfate (55), from aqueous extracts of the roots of P. cuspidatum.

2.4 Terpenoids

 

Cheng22 and Li23 isolated five triterpenoids and a diterpene, i.e., (24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6α-triol (56), cucurbitacin IIa (57), cucurbitacin U (58), asteryunnanoside F (59), saikosaponin M (60), and 13-hydroxy helianthemum 8-(17),14-diene-19-aldehyde (61), from ethyl acetate extracts of P. perfoliatum. Sun24 isolated five triterpenoids, i.e., 3β-acetoxy-dammara-20,24-diene (62), arborinone (63), adianenone (64), arborinol (65), and isoarborinol (66), from the dried roots of P. bistorta L. Compounds 62–66 were isolated from the Polygonum genus for the first time. Mazid25 identified sitosterone (67) from the petroleum ether fraction and viscozulenic acid (68) from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extracts of P. barbatum L. Bidyut26 isolated three new sesquiterpenes, i.e., iscozulenic acid methylester (69), viscoazucinic acid (70), and polygosumic acid (71), from the chloroform extracts of aerial parts of P. viscosum by reversed-phase preparative HPLC. Additionally, Yang27 isolated a new terpenoid saponin, 8-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,7β-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (72), from the fruits of P. orientale. Bidyut28 isolated a sesquiterpene acid, viscosumic acid (73) from P. viscosum. Karuppiah29 isolated two cycloartane-type triterpenoids, i.e., 24(E)-ethylidenecycloartanone (74) and 24(E)-ethylidenecycloartan-3α-ol (75), from the rhizomes of P. bistorta.

2.5 Other Compounds

Some other compounds from different classes have been isolated from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae). Among these compounds, stilbene glycosides are major components found in P. multiflorum. Xiao30 isolated 10 stilbene glycosides (76–85), and Li31isolated five new compounds (86–90). 

Xiang32 isolated 12 phenolic compounds from P. amplexicaule var. Sinense, and Takasaki33,34 isolated four new phenyl propanoid esters of sucrose, namely, lapathoside A (91), lapathoside B (92), lapathoside C (93), and lapathoside D (94), from aerial parts of P. lapathifolium together with the known esters vanicoside B (95) and hydropiperoside (96). Liu35 isolated a new tannin-related compound identified as 3-methyl-gallic acid 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-3"-methyl-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (97) from the rhizome of P. bistorta L. Additionally, Li36 isolated three alkaloids, including N-cis-feruloyltyramine (98), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (99), and paprazine (100), from flowers of P. oriental. Smolarz37 isolated a new carboxystilbene from P. persicaria 2-carboxy-3,5-methoxy-E-stilbene (101), and Zhou38 isolated a new ellagic acid derivative, runcinatside (102), with four ellagic acids (103–106) from the roots of P. runcinatum. Yang39isolated the new compound neopaleaceolactoside (107), along with nine known compounds, from the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts of the rhizomes of P. paleaceum. Madhukar40identified the new natural product (2)-2-methoxy-2-butenolide-3-cinnamate (108) from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of P. glabrum. Wang41 isolated 3,3,4′-trimethylellagic acid (109), 3,3-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (110), 3,3,4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4′-d-glucopyranoside (111), and 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (112) from the ethanol extracts of P. runcinatum. Hu42 isolated rosemary acid (113), caffeic acid (114), and coumaric acid (115) from P. aviculane, and Zhang43 isolated hirsutine (116) from the genus Polygonum for the first time. Zhang44 isolated tadeonal (117) and isotadeonal (118) from P. hydropiper Linn., and Shen45 isolated two new apianen lactones, i.e., guanyeliaoine I (119) and guanyeliaoine II (120), along with seven known compounds, from P. perfoliatum L. Moreover, Liu46isolated the new phenylpropanoid esters vanicoside A′ (121), hydropiperoside-B (122), and hydropiperoside A (123) from P. pubescens Blume.

Table 1. Compounds isolated from the genus Polygonum

Plant

Compounds

Reference

Polygonum aviculare L.

Kaempferol

2

 

Myricetin

2

 

Myricetin3-O-(3"-O-galloy1)-rhamnopyranoside

2

 

Liquiritin

3

 

Avicularin

3

 

Cinaroside

3

 

6-Methoxyplumbagin

17

Polygonum amplexicaule

(2R,3S)-3′,4′,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavan-3-ol

8

Polygonum angustifolium

Avicularin

10

Polygonum amphibium

Hyperoside

10

Polygonum aviculane

Rosemary acid

42

 

Caffeic acid

42

 

Coumaric acid

42

Polygonum bistorta L.

3,7,3-Trihydroxy-5,6-dimethoxyflavone

6

 

3β-Acetoxy-dammara-20,24-diene

24

 

Arborinone

24

 

Adianenone

24

 

Arborinol

24

Polygonum bistorta L.

24(E)-ethylidenecycloartanone

29

 

24(E)-ethylidenecycloartan-3α-ol

29

Polygonum bistorta L.

3-Methyl-gallic-acid,4-O-β-d-(6′-O-3"-methyl-galloyl)-glucopyranoside

35

Polygonum barbatum L.

Sitosterone

25

 

Viscozulenic acid

25

Polygonum capitatum

7-O-(6′-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5-hydroxychromone

11

 

Hirsutine

43

Polygonum cuspidatum

Polyganins A

18

 

Polyganins B

18

 

Polyflavanostilbene A

12

 

Sodium(-)-lyoniresinol-2α-sulfate

21

 

Sodium(+)-isolaricireinol-2α-sulfate

21

Polygonum divaricatum

Isoquercetin

10

Polygonum multiflorum

Chrysophanol

15

 

Physcion

15

 

2-Methoxystypandrone

15

 

(E)-2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-(4"-O-a-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside

31

 

(E)-2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-(6"-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside

31

 

(E)-2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-4′-O- a-d-glucopyranoside

31

 

(E)-2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-5-O- a-d-glucopyranoside

31

 

(E)-2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-(2"-O-β-d-fructofuranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside

31

Polygonum glabrum.

(2)-2-methoxy-2-butenolide-3-cinnamate

40

Polygonum hydropiper

Tadeonal

44

 

Isotadeonal

44

Polygonum hyrcanicum

Quercetin 3-O-α-l-(3",5"-diacetyl arabinofuranoside)

13

 

Quercetin 3-O-α-l-(3"-acetyl-arabinofuranoside)

13

 

Quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside

13

 

Myricetin 3-O-α-l-(3",5"-diacetyl-arabinofuranoside)

13

 

Myricetin 3-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside

13

Polygonum jucundum

3,5,7-three hydroxy chromone

4

 

Apigenin

4

 

Luteolin

4

Polygonum lapathifolium

Lapathosides A-D

33

 

Vanicoside B

34

 

Hydropiperoside

34

Polygonum orientale

8-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,7β-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate

27

Polygonum oriental

N-cis-feruloyltyramine

36

 

N-trans-feruloyltyramine

36

 

Paprazine

36

Polygonum persicaria

5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone

7

 

6′-Hydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxychalcone

7

 

2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′,5′-dimethoxychalcone

7

Polygonum paleaceum

Epicatechin

9

 

Procyanidin B-C

9

 

Neopaleaceolactoside

39

Polygonum perfoliatum L.

6-Acety1-3,6-diferuloylsucrose

19

 

2,4,6-Triacetyl-3-6-diferuloylsucrose

19

 

1,2,4,6-Tetraacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose

19

 

1,2,6-Triacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose

19

 

2,6-Diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose

19

 

8-Oxo-pinoresinol

20

 

13-Hydroxy helianthemum 8-(17),14-diene-19-aldehyde

22

 

(24S)-24-Ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6α-triol

23

 

Cucurbitacin IIa

23

 

Cucurbitacin U

23

 

Asteryunnanoside F

23

 

Saikosaponin M

23

 

Guanyeliaoine I

45

 

Guanyeliaoine II

45

Polygonum persicaria

2-Carboxy-3,5-methoxy-E-stilbene

37

Polygonum pubescens Blume.

Vanicoside A′ (121)

46

 

Hydropiperoside-B (122)

46

 

Hydropiperoside A (123)

46

Polygonum runcinatum

3,3,4′-Trimethylellagic acid

41

 

3,3-Di-O-methyl ellagic acid

41

 

3,3,4-Tri-O-methylellagic acid -4′-d-glucopyranoside

41

 

3,3′-Di-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside

41

 

Runcinatside

38

 

3,3′-Dimethylellagic acid

38

 

3,3′,4′-Trimethylellagic acid

38

 

3,3′-Dimethylellagic acid-4′-O-β-d-glucoside

38

 

3-Methylellagic acid-4′-O-a-l-rhamno-pyranoside

38

Polygonum sieboldii

Tricin

5

 

7,4-Dimethoxy kaempferol

5

Polygonum viscosum

Iscozulenic acid methylester

26

 

Viscoazucinic acid

26

 

Polygosumic acid

26

 

Viscosumic acid

28

Polygonum viviparum L.

Viviparum A

14

 

Viviparum B

14

Rumex japonicus

Rhein

13

 

Emodin-6-methyl-ether

13

3.Pharmacological Effects

3.1 Anticancer and Antitumor Activities

In recent years, studies have shown that the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) possesses good anticancer and antitumor activities. Moreover, P. cuspidatum has antiviral effects on human immunodeficiency virus47 and anticancer effects in lung cancer48, hepatic carcinoma49,50,51,52,53, colorectal cancer54, and oral cancer55. Intisar56 isolated 13 phenolic compounds from methanol-water extracts of P. bistorta L. using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and these compounds were found to show strong cytotoxicity against HCCLM3 cancer cells. Additionally, all the fractions containing phenolic content showed good to strong cytotoxic activity. Manoharan57 evaluated the cytotoxic activities of P. bistorta against P338, HepG2, J82, HL60 (human leukemia), MCF7, and LL2 cancer cell lines and showed that the chloroform fractions exhibited good activity against P388, HL60, and LL2 cancer cell lines.

Dai58 used 3H-TdR incorporation for drug susceptibility testing and found that extracts of P. cuspidatum possessed good inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells. In addition, resveratrol and its glycosides isolated from Rumex gmelini inhibited MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation59 and had obvious inhibitory effects on human and mouse white blood cell hyperplasia60. Sun61 determined the inhibitory effects of petroleum ether extracts of P. orientale (mainly containing alkenes, alkyne hydrocarbons, and esters) on SPAC-1 lung cancer cells, U87 glioma cells, HeLa cervical cancer cells, SGC7901 gastric cancer cells, and KB oral epidermoid carcinoma cells by MTT assays; the extract was found to have inhibitory effects on HeLa and SGC7901 cells.

3.2 Anti-oxidative Activity

Most species of the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) have antioxidant effects. P. cuspidatum is a potent anti-oxidative traditional Chinese medicine62,63. Stilbenes and anthraquinones (2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone)64 are key compounds possessing antioxidant effects65. In addition, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin also showed high radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging assays66.

Ahmad67and George68found that P. minus showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, Xing69 investigated the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of P. perfoliatum L. and found that the methanol extracts had strong antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Chang70 studied the methanol extracts of P. perfoliatum and evaluated the antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, α-tocopherol and methyl trans-ferulate showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging effects, with EC50 values of 11.9 and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively. Wang71 found that the ethanol extracts of runcinate knotweed had strong antioxidant effects. Moreover, Ayaz72 showed that P. hydropiper was enriched with potent bioactive compounds, which could be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hsu73 studied the anti-oxidative activities of P. aviculare L. by free radical scavenging assays, superoxide radical scavenging assays, lipid peroxidation assays, and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission assays and showed that P. aviculare L. extract had strong antioxidant effects.

3.3 Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects

Studies have shown that flavonoids from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) have significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In particular, luteolin has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, potentially through inhibition of the release of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and suppression of nuclear factor-κB-mediated gene expression74. In addition, kaempferol and quercetin inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, such as PGE2, by blocking the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 to relieve inflammation75,76,77,78.

George79 found that P. minus possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities, and Song80 studied the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Caulis Polygoni Multiflori. The results showed that Caulis Polygoni Multiflori had strong anti-inflammatory effects on chronic inflammation and no acute inflammation resistance effect. Fan81 found that quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide showed inhibitory activity against influenza A virus. Additionally, Rahman82 studied the analgesic activities of the hexane, ethylacetate, and methanol extracts of P. hydropiper using the acetic acid-induced writhing assays. The results showed significant effects on acetic acid-induced writhing. Among the tested extracts, the ethylacetate extract showed the most significant activity.

3.4 Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities

P. capitatum exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activities83,84,85,86. In particular, stilbenes and hydroxyanthraquinones show a broad antibacterial range87,88,89. Using the paper disc diffusion method, researchers showed that P. aviculare L. exhibits good activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and fungi90and that P. glabraum possesses significant antimicrobial activity91. ElHaci92 studied the biological activities of P. maritimum L. from the Algerian coast and found that its activity (methanolic crude extract of P. maritimum; PMCE) was probably due to phenolic compounds present in the extract because PMCE had a very high content of total phenol and showed high anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive bacterial strains (e.g., Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Additionally, Majumder93 investigated the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude methanolic extracts of P. viscosum and showed that the crude methanolic extract of P. viscosum leaves possessed significant, dose-dependent anthelmintic activity; the activity of the crude extract was comparable to that of standard drugs.

3.5 Other Pharmacological Effects

Polydatin from P. cuspidatum and P. aviculare L. shows anti-obesity effects in obese mice fed a high-fat diet94,95,96and on lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic rabbits97. In addition, this compound had inhibitory effects on Coxsackievirus B498 and showed wound healing in rats99and has been identified as an inhibitor of the bacterial DNA primase enzyme100. Studies have shown that trans-resveratrol from P. cuspidatum and the combined extracts of Morus alba and P. odoratum leaves play protective roles against bone loss101,102. Finally, Datta103 isolated eight compounds from P. viscosum and showed that these compounds had good inhibitory effects on the central nervous system.

4.Summary

Plants of the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae) produce a range of chemical constituents with various pharmacological effects. To date, only some of the species in this genus have been explored. Only 123 compounds have been reported, most of which have not been evaluated to determine their pharmacological effects. Some extracts have showed potential efficacy; for example, extract from Polygonum species possess anticancer, antitumor, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and insecticidal effects. Therefore, the genus Polygonum should be investigated and explored further for identification of new drug candidates.

Funding Support

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of People’s Republic of China (81374062 and 85673179) and Hunan Province University Innovation Platform Open Fund (Project 13K077).

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

None.

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中文摘要: 

蓼属植物化学成分主要有黄酮类、醌类,苯丙素类和萜类化合物,且具有抗癌、抗肿瘤、抗氧化、抗炎、镇痛、抗菌、杀虫等药理作用。本文就近15年来蓼科蓼属植物的化学成分及药理作用的研究做一分析。